Factors Influencing Alcohol Use in Young Adults | AspenRidge

When delving into the factors influencing alcohol use among young adults, it’s crucial to acknowledge the complex interplay of various elements. This age group is particularly vulnerable due to a mix of biological, psychological, and social factors.

  • Behavioral and Psychological Precursors: A study by Mason & Spoth (2012) revealed that impulsive behaviors are a significant predictor of early onset alcohol use. This tendency towards impulsivity can lead to more severe alcohol problems in young adulthood. Additionally, aggression and hostility during adolescence have been linked to alcohol abuse later in life. However, the study interestingly points out that family-focused interventions can effectively reduce the impact of these behavioral precursors.
  • The Role of Genetics and Environment: The research conducted by Windle & Zucker (2010) brings to light the significant roles both genetic and environmental factors play in shaping underage and young adult drinking behaviors. Their findings indicate that early alcohol use initiation is linked to a higher likelihood of developing alcohol dependence. This genetic predisposition, coupled with environmental exposures, creates a high-risk period for developing problematic drinking habits.
  • Influence of Family and Parenting Styles: Chartier, Hesselbrock, & Hesselbrock (2010) underscore the importance of family dynamics in young adult alcohol use. A family history of alcoholism, coupled with factors like family conflict and specific parenting styles, significantly affects the likelihood of adolescents developing alcohol-related problems. This insight highlights the need for family-oriented approaches in prevention and intervention strategies.

 

Peer Pressure, Social Factors, Cultural Influences, and Availability

Expanding on the influences of peer pressure, social factors, cultural norms, and the availability of alcohol on young adults’ drinking behaviors reveals a multifaceted landscape:

  • Gender Differences in Peer Influence: Research by Windle and Windle (2018) shows that peer selection processes are more influential than socialization in young adults’ alcohol use. Interestingly, adopting marital and parental roles, particularly for females, is associated with lower alcohol use and a lower percentage of friends using alcohol, indicating the nuanced role gender plays in these social dynamics.
  • Social Media’s Role in Alcohol Consumption: Strowger and Braitman (2022) highlight the impact of exposure to alcohol-related social media content on young adults’ drinking behavior. The influence of social media, especially among peers, underscores the changing landscape of social influence in the digital age, where online interactions significantly shape alcohol use patterns.
  • Cultural Norms and Masculine Norms: The research by Iwamoto and Smiler (2013) dives into how masculine norms can influence alcohol use among adolescents. Both boys and girls who endorse masculine norms are at a higher risk of engaging in dangerous behaviors, including alcohol use. This indicates the deep entrenchment of cultural norms and expectations in shaping drinking behaviors.
  • Perceived Normative Pressure and Attitudes: Keefe (1994) observed that perceived normative social pressure and attitudes toward alcohol use change during adolescence. Younger adolescents perceive more pressure against alcohol use from friends compared to older adolescents. This shift in perception highlights the evolving nature of social influence as individuals transition through different stages of adolescence and into young adulthood.

These studies collectively demonstrate how peer pressure, social media, cultural norms, and gender-specific influences converge to shape alcohol use behaviors in young adults. Understanding these influences is crucial for developing targeted interventions and preventive strategies.

FactorsKey Findings Implications for Intervention/Prevention
Behavioral and Psychological PrecursorsImpulsive behaviors predict early onset alcohol use. Family-focused interventions can mitigate the impact. Aggression and hostility in adolescence correlate with alcohol abuse later in life. Implement family-focused interventions to address impulsive behaviors. Integrate strategies to address aggression and hostility in interventions.
The Role of Genetics and Environment Early alcohol use initiation is linked to a higher likelihood of developing alcohol dependence. Genetic predisposition and environmental exposures increase the risk of problematic drinking habits. Develop prevention programs targeting early alcohol use initiation. Implement interventions addressing both genetic and environmental factors.
Influence of Family and Parenting Styles Family history of alcoholism and specific parenting styles significantly affect alcohol-related problems. Incorporate family-oriented approaches in prevention strategies.
Peer Pressure, Social Factors, Cultural Influences, and Availability Peer selection processes are more influential than socialization in young adults’ alcohol use. Exposure to alcohol-related social media content influences young adults’ drinking behavior. Masculine norms increase the risk of engaging in risky behaviors, including alcohol use. Perceived normative pressure and attitudes toward alcohol use change during adolescence. Design interventions focusing on peer selection processes. Address the impact of social media in alcohol-related interventions. Incorporate gender-specific approaches in intervention strategies. Tailor interventions based on shifting perceptions of social pressure.

References

  1. Andrews, J. A., Tildesley, E., Hops, H., & Li, F. (2002). The influence of peers on young adult substance use. Health Psychology : Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association, 21(4), 349-57.
  2. Borsari, B., & Carey, K. B. (2001). Peer influences on college drinking: A review of the research. Journal of Substance Abuse, 13(4), 391-424.
  3. Chartier, K., Hesselbrock, M., & Hesselbrock, V. (2010). Development and vulnerability factors in adolescent alcohol use. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 19(3), 493-504.
  4. Emslie, C., Hunt, K., & Lyons, A. (2011). Older and wiser? Men’s and women’s accounts of drinking in early mid-life. Sociology of Health & Illness, 34, 481 – 496.
  5. Hepworth, J., McVittie, C., Schofield, T., Lindsay, J., Leontini, R., & Germov, J. (2016). ‘Just choose the easy option’: students talk about alcohol use and social influence. Journal of Youth Studies, 19, 251 – 268.
  6. Iwamoto, D., & Smiler, A. P. (2013). Alcohol makes you macho and helps you make friends: The role of masculine norms and peer pressure in adolescent boys’ and girls’ alcohol use. Substance Use & Misuse, 48, 371 – 378.
  7. Keefe, K. (1994). Perceptions of normative social pressure and attitudes toward alcohol use: changes during adolescence. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 55(1), 46-54.
  8. Leonard, K., & Mudar, P. (2000). Alcohol use in the year before marriage: alcohol expectancies and peer drinking as proximal influences on husband and wife alcohol involvement. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 24(11), 1666-79.
  9. Morris, H., Larsen, J., Catterall, E., Moss, A., & Dombrowski, S. (2020). Peer pressure and alcohol consumption in adults living in the UK: a systematic qualitative review. BMC Public Health, 20.
  10. Strowger, M., & Braitman, A. L. (2022). Using social network methodology to examine the effects of exposure to alcohol-related social media content on alcohol use: A critical review. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology.
  11. Windle, M., & Windle, R. (2018). Sex differences in peer selection and socialization for alcohol use from adolescence to young adulthood and the influence of marital and parental status. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 42, 2394–2402.

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